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Kopaninsky stream catchment

Kopaninský stream catchment is a small, tile drained agricultural-forested watershed, typical for the Bohemo-Moravian Highland. It is located close to the Pelhřimov town. It spreads on an area of 710 ha; the mean annual total precipitation is 665mm and the mean air temperature is 7.1°C. Soil conditions are heterogeneous; the major soil types are Cambisols (arenic, modal and gleyed forms), Pseudogleys and Gleysols in sloped and alluvial positions. Major parent rock is paragneiss, other encountered ones are granite, orthogneiss and quartzite; sporadically sandy and loamy eluvium. There is characteristic shallow aquifer which is fixed to the quaternary porous sediments or to the weathering zones in the basement crystalline rocks or to zone of shallow disjunction of crevices. The Kopaninsky´ stream represents a typical local small agricultural catchment with a common land use: 44.7% cropland, 36.7 forest, 13.1% meadows and pastures, 3.5% other surfaces, 1% gardens, 0.6% built up areas, 0.5% water ponds. Above the catchment outlet, there are two small villages in the catchment and several remoted dwellingswith their own septic tanks; see Fig. 2.

Water levels are measured by calibrated Thomson weirs equipped with US probes connected to dataloggers (Fiedler-Magr) with 10 min (1 min per snap-shot) recording, with recalculation to discharge. Water sampling is done discretely by manual withdrawal in a fortnight step in all the monitored sites and in the watershed outlet. Beside this, automatic samplers ISCO 6712 are placed in sites P33, P52, P53, P6 and T7U to withdraw water samples during rainfall-runoff episodes.

Subsurface land drainage in the study area is of a systematic pattern; the systems are prevailingly placed in sloping locations, with outlets into small water courses or open drainage ditches. As a frequent ameliorative measure in this rural region, the systems were constructed during late 1970s and early 1980s – as a part of a countrywide campaign of tile drainage works, which took place between about 1965 and 1985 in the whole Czech Republic. Collective and conductive drains lie in the depths of 0.9–1.1m and their inside diameter ranges from 5 to 6.5, or from 6.5 to 10 cm, respectively. The intervals between collective drains are in the range of 8–18 m. Tile drainage covers about 10% of the catchment area, and 16% of the agricultural land.

The purpose of the research on Kopaninsky stream catchment is to describe and quantify hydrologic, geographic and agricultural factors, both in short and long term, and their role in water quality and quantity dynamics and soil erosion, in relation to highly heterogeneous soil conditions and changeable weather.